As an anthropology major, I love all things historic, especially anything having to do with our early ancestors and understanding how they lived and interacted with each other. Which is why I was so thrilled when I found out that part of our journey through South Africa included seeing some prehistoric rock art.
We spent a bit of time in Mapungubwe National Park, which is on the northern border of South Africa, joining Zimbabwe and Botswana. The Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The area was instrumental in international trade through the East African ports to India and China up to its decline in the 13th Century. There are still remains of buildings from the height of the kingdom’s power, but we only had enough time to explore the rock art.
There were some simple rules to abide by:
The rock shelter we explored was Kaoxa’s Shelter. The name of the shelter came from the Kalahari San hunter-gatherers and their god Kaoxa, Lord of the Animals. The Kalahari San made these paintings, some of which are at least 2000 years old or more. There are around 200 paintings exhibiting over 16 different species of animals.
As you can see in the image below, there are numerous depictions of animals, the clearest being a giraffe (top right corner). In San belief, the giraffe was thought to have supernatural potency that could be harnessed to achieve altered states of consciousness. This altered state would then send them into the spirit world and give them the power to heal people. The image below also depicts kudu, hartebeest, antelope, a lion, and human figures dancing. Can you see them? (Hint: the human figures are in the lower right.)
This is a better photo of the giraffe. It’s a pretty good likeness, don’t you agree? The rock art paintings were done primarily in red ochre, though yellow, white and black were also used.
The following cluster of paintings depicts hunting, specifically antelope and even a hippo! It’s believed that the image of the hippo being hunted isn’t literal, as the hippo’s hide would have been too tough to penetrate with a San arrow. It’s thought that this was representing the hunt for supernatural power.
If the paintings are a bit difficult to decipher, there were helpful interpretive signs outlining the images:
And if the paintings weren’t cool enough, there is also evidence of an ancient board game!
Iron Age farmers may have created these games. But the San or Khoekhoen people might have created them as well. These game boards exist all over Africa. The Khoekhoen people from Namibia call them “Cloud Games,” and they were mystically linked to rain.
The geometric markings below are typical of Khoekhoen rock art. The Khoekhoen herders arrived around the first millennium AD. They also introduced sheep to southern Africa. It’s not entirely clear what this painting was meant to depict, but researchers believe that it represents the tassels on a woman’s apron. This was linked to girls’ puberty rites, when girls were given a new apron to signal their initiation into womanhood.
The panel below is also a jumble of multiple images. How many can you recognize?
Well ok, there’s a lot happening in this one and the images aren’t that clear. Here’s a bit of help:
The images include standalone women’s aprons (indicated with red arrows), giraffes, mongooses, gemsbok, and locusts. The San believed locusts had magical powers, and that healers controlled their appearance in swarms.
Note the section of the image that says “panel removed”. This is due to an incident from the 1950s, when the removal of rock art was still permitted. The missing image is now located in the National Cultural History Museum Tshwane. The image is of seven female figures.
If you’re interested in reading more about the rock paintings and the 2009-2014 management plan for Kaoxa Shelter, there’s a great pdf from the Getty Conservation Institute and Southern African Rock Art Project that’s worth a read.